Back to patterns in Haskell, an unruly puzzle that’s run through the last few years of my life, trying to work out how I want to represent my music. Here’s the current state of my types:

data Pattern a = Sequence {arc :: Range -> [Event a]} | Signal {at :: Rational -> [a]}

type Event a = (Range, a) type Range = (Rational, Rational)

A *Range* is a time range, with a start (onset) and duration. An *Event* is of some type *a*, that occurs over a Range. A *Pattern* can be instantiated either as a *Sequence* or *Signal*. These are directly equivalent to the distinction between digital and analogue, or discrete and continuous. A *Sequence* is a set of discrete events (with start and duration) occurring within a given range, and a *Signal* is a set of values for a given position in time. In other words, both are represented as functions from time to values, but *Sequence* is for representing a set of events which have beginnings and ends, and *Range* is for a continuously varying set of values.

This is a major improvement on my previous version, simply because the types are significantly simpler, which makes the code significantly easier to work with. This simplicity is due to the structure of patterns being represented entirely with functional composition, so is closer to my (loose) understanding of functional reactive programming..

The *Functor* definition is straightforward enough:

mapSnd f (x,y) = (x,f y)

instance Functor Pattern where fmap f (Sequence a) = Sequence $ fmap (fmap (mapSnd f)) a fmap f (Signal a) = Signal $ fmap (fmap f) a

The *Applicative* definition allows signals and patterns to be combined in in a fairly reasonable manner too, although I imagine this could be tidied up a fair bit:

instance Applicative Pattern where pure x = Signal $ const [x] (Sequence fs) <*> (Sequence xs) = Sequence $ \r -> concatMap (\((o,d),x) -> map (\(r', f) -> (r', f x)) ( filter (\((o',d'),_) -> (o' >= o) && (o' < (o+d))) (fs r) ) ) (xs r)

(Signal fs) <*> (Signal xs) = Signal $ \t -> (fs t) <*> (xs t) (Signal fs) <*> px@(Sequence _) = Signal $ \t -> concatMap (\(_, x) -> map (\f -> f x) (fs t)) (at' px t) (Sequence fs) <*> (Signal xs) = Sequence $ \r -> concatMap (\((o,d), f) -> map (\x -> ((o,d), f x)) (xs o)) (fs r)

In the *Pattern* datatype, time values are represented using *Rational* numbers, where each whole number represents the start of a metrical cycle, i.e. something like a bar. Therefore, concatenating patterns involves ‘playing’ one cycle from each pattern within every cycle:

cat :: [Pattern a] -> Pattern a cat ps = combine $ map (squash l) (zip [0..] ps) where l = length ps

squash :: Int -> (Int, Pattern a) -> Pattern a squash n (i, p) = Sequence $ \r -> concatMap doBit (bits r) where o' = (fromIntegral i)%(fromIntegral n) d' = 1%(fromIntegral n) cycle o = (fromIntegral $ floor o) subR o = ((cycle o) + o', d') doBit (o,d) = mapFsts scaleOut $ maybe [] ((arc p) . scaleIn) (subRange (o,d) (subR o)) scaleIn (o,d) = (o-o',d* (fromIntegral n)) scaleOut (o,d) = ((cycle o)+o'+ ((o-(cycle o))/(fromIntegral n)), d/ (fromIntegral n))

subRange :: Range -> Range -> Maybe Range subRange (o,d) (o',d') | d'' > 0 = Just (o'', d'') | otherwise = Nothing where o'' = max o (o') d'' = (min (o+d) (o'+d')) - o''

-- chop range into ranges of unit cycles bits :: Range -> [Range] bits (_, 0) = [] bits (o, d) = (o,d'):bits (o+d',d-d') where d' = min ((fromIntegral $ (floor o) + 1) - o) d

Well this code could definitely be improved..

If anyone is interested the code is on github, but is not really ready for public consumption yet. Now I can get back to making music with it though, more on that elsewhere, soon, maybe under a new pseudonym..

I like half your events model, giving each event a duration. Though, it seems odd I could represent events that vary wildly based on the query.